Thursday, February 4, 2016

Benjamin Franklin Quote S/R

“They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety” Benjamin Franklin, 1759
______________________________________________________________________________
Summary:
Benjamin Franklin’s statement, made in 1759, defines the cost of relinquishing one’s personal liberties as a complete loss of that freedom even when our intentions are for the protection of ourselves and others.

  • Topic sentence: author, strong verb, main idea
  • 1 SENTENCE
_____________________________________________________________________
Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author,,correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays___(Main Idea)________ because ___________ .
Benjamin Franklin, a Founding Father of the United States of America, correctly portrays the consequences of relinquishing one’s freedom in order to gain security in his statement from 1759 because of the constant and current demonstrations of abuse from our police officers in America.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
      • Our daily form of public security, the police, possess the power to arrest those they find are threats to society. However, on numerous occasions throughout US history, the power appointed to these individuals is questionable, for many officers, who are all granted a degree of immunity against lawsuits, abuse their power and thus threaten the rights of the people. In one case in February of 2015 in Chico, California, 30-year-old Sean Reardon, who was pulled over for the suspicion of driving under the influence, claimed to have been immediately beaten repeatedly by two police officers upon exiting his vehicle. He was subjected to violence without provocation and suffered several injuries as a result of the event.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (Shakespeare 1.2.13-17).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • As a result of this abusive case of police misconduct, Reardon was hospitalized. He suffered a small respiratory failure, and had to be put on a ventilator in hospital, endured multiple broken bones, including ribs, nose and sternum, and was in the ICU for 4 days. By giving up a portion of one’s liberties as an American, people like Sean and countless other Americans are punished unjustly by abusive officers whom they have given their freedom to protect and respect them, not harm them. This is an especially true offense for these victims, who in a majority of cases do not pose as threat towards the officer or the public during the evaluation or conviction process. Therefore, Benjamin Franklin’s statement is valid when applied to the price of public security. We are giving up our freedom to power hungry individuals who use their appointed powers for their own pleasure rather than the protective, defensive intentions of the people.
  • Counterclaim 1: However, ....
    • Set-up
      • However, police officers do not correctly portray the cost of relinquishing one’s freedom in order to gain security because of the many situations where officers have saved their own lives and the lives of the public. Officers have the right to harm individuals on certain terms. Specifically, if the suspect threatens the officer or a victim with a weapon, the officer is legally permitted to utilize the appropriate force to disarm the threat. When the suspect must be shot or severely injured, a legal term called Justifiable Homicide legally enables one to kill another out of self defense or the defense of another.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • Officers protect themselves and the public from potentially life threatening criminals by taking the necessary precautions to stop the threat, whether it is through stunning the suspect, such as hitting or clubbing, or the occasional need to terminate the individual or group entirely. For the cost of a part of our freedom to local police, we are able to keep our country safer from possible threats and defend other prevalent rights in our lives. Therefore, police forces using their power to prosecute or harm people is not a loss of our liberties, for we have accepted the terms, and have found that those slight dissolutions in our freedoms have secured our communities and our country from internal threats who could take away more of our rights. The police can be seen as our insurance to protect us when trouble arises, not as a blackmail market.
  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
  • At first glance, power in the police forces are a beneficial, uniform, and worthwhile security system in this country.
  • We cannot deny that the officers in this country indeed safeguard Americans from threats to both their physical and mental rights. Over the decades, eras, and centuries of this country, officers have prosecuted and removed criminals of multiple levels from harm’s way in society. In many cases, officers eliminate threats completely from a community and complete precautionary actions that make our freedoms come into balance with our relinquished freedoms.
  • However, it is more complicated than that. Throughout history, although we believe that the police have been a beneficial use of our forfeited rights, the proper force is not always used in order to secure us from threats. Misleading actions are a primary issue. A percentage of inmates or victims of Justifiable Homicide are actually non threatening and even innocent in society. Recently, the number of officers that have “killed suspects out of self defense” have come to a point where it has become the immediate solution for many situations. Officers have shot countless individuals in the last few years who have been found later to be harmless, and were shot for no logical reason by officers. We have strayed away from peaceful encounters between officers and citizens and have generated a violence oriented “safety system” to protect us. How are we safe when we are now more than ever being threatened by our security forces whom we have given up mass quantities of our freedom to feel safe with? In fact, studies have found that police in local communities, airports, etc. do not actually make us safer, but they make us feel safer. We have ironically created more legal issues against officers regarding their power or right misconducts across the country instead of creating fewer and improving our protections agencies.
  • Concluding sentence: restate title, author,,correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays___(Main Idea)________ because ___________ .
Therefore, Benjamin Franklin’s statement from 1759 correctly portrays the cost of freedom that Americans have paid in order to obtain safety because of the escalating actions performed by the safety enforcers themselves, police officers, in America.

Sunday, October 4, 2015

Attai Othello Act 5 Summary Response

Summary Response Outline


Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
    • Othello by William Shakespeare exhibits the power of words and how its presence can be utilized to harm another.
  • Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas
    • As the conflicts in the play reach their climax, the verbal tensions between the characters are expressed in their final expulsions.
    • Antagonist Iago’s final comments to his master, Othello, regarding the false scandal involving Othello’s wife, Desdemona, ultimately leads Othello to murder Desdemona. Iago’s power of words over Roderigo, his presumed ally, also leads to Roderigo’s death in this final act of the play.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
    • Clearly, the sly state of words such as those used by characters in William Shakespeare’s Othello can maim the life of one or more individuals.


Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author,,correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays___(Main Idea)________ because ___________ .
    • Othello by William Shakespeare correctly portrays the power of words because its presence can psychologically alter another.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
      • In Act 5 of the play, Iago, the primary antagonist, has secured verbal power over multiple characters. Othello, the initial protagonist and Iago’s master, is among the most influenced by Iago’s sly comments. Due to his trust in Iago, Othello is persuaded that his wife, Desdemona, is having an affair with another man. As his exasperation and sense of indignation increase, he is again convinced by Iago’s words to not only punish Desdemona, but to penalize her to highest extremity: death. Othello’s frustration allows him to complete the murder, and those closest to Othello and Desdemona respond subsequently.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (Shakespeare 1.2.13-17).
      • Lodovico, Desdemona’s cousin from Venice, describes the changes he has identified in Othello as he recapitulates, “O thou Othello that [wert] once so good, fall’n in the practice of a [damned] slave…” (Shakespeare 5.2. 259).  
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • After Othello murders Desdemona, Lodovico makes a crucial observation. He swiftly, directly summarizes how Othello’s demeanor, personality, and overall character has been altered following his arrival in Cyprus. Specifically, Lodovico remarks how Othello was once known as a good individual, and then abruptly transformed into a new man. Othello became an angered slave of man as a result of an external force. He has been shaped into a violent, infuriated individual. What is unknown by Lodovico and most of the other characters is the Iago, who over time accumulated Othello’s trust, has been using the power and trust in his words to brainwash Othello of his virtues. He is the primary reason for Othello’s physiological transformation from gentle to violent, and he is the icon who best represents the verbal power that one can inflict to cause pain to others such as brainwashed Othello.
  • Counterclaim 1: However, ....
    • Set-up
      • However, Othello, under certain circumstances, incorrectly portrays the immediate impact of powerful words. One of these instances is after Othello discovers the truth behind Iago’s accusations against Desdemona.
      • Emilia, Iago’s wife and Desdemona’s attendant, confesses the truth and proves that Iago is guilty. Othello is astonished and infuriated by the hoax that has been placed into his mind by his trusted servant and now lieutenant. As this quandary is explained in more detail, Othello’s personality "mask" created by Iago does not fade. This is shown as he stabs Iago for the fallacies he has bestowed onto him. However, the stabbing does not kill Iago.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
      • Othello’s continuation of his new demeanor is presented as he explain to Iago, “I am not sorry neither. I’d have thee live, for in my sense ‘tis happiness to die” (Shakespeare 5.2. 259).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • Othello, who was mentally maimed by Iago prior to his downfall, persists in his violent actions despite the new information delivered to him about Iago. After learning that Iago manipulated him through his trusted words, he explains that he to let Iago die would mean that he would win in happiness. Othello feels in this moment that Iago must live with his guilt as punishment, for death is not the torture he seeks for what Iago. Othello had been consistently impacted by the power of words in the past, such as a truth or assumed truth with Iago, but now he has ceased to follow is usual norm. Othello does not automatically retain his original demeanor as readers know from the beginning of the play. He maintains his identity that Iago formulated for him earlier in the play, which shows how the power of words will not always change the mental state of another.
What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
    • At first glance, one could argue that Othello is not entirely vulnerable to the power of words.
    • This way of making sense of the position makes a degree of sense. If Othello was always vulnerable to the words of others, he would not have gone on to  behave identically when Iago is proven guilty. Othello demands that Iago be tortured rather than simply imprisoned or punished in another form such as how he handled the violent fight between Roderigo and Cassio upon arriving in Cyprus. Othello normally removes one’s title after a violent occurrence like Cassio’s. This change in his normal reaction shows that he is still mentally violent and unchanged by the power of Emilia’s truthful words.
    • But it is more complicated than that. Othello, who was mentally maimed by Iago, expresses signs of his original personality after he is told the truth about Iago through his own narration. The sudden return of Othello’s physiological state is expressed by him as he exclaims, “Whip me, you devils, from the possession of this heavenly sight! Blow me about in winds, roast me in sulfur, wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire! O Desdemona! Dead, Desdemona! Dead…” (Shakespeare 5.2. 259). This expression of guilt is very similar to his actions in Act 1 in front of Brabantio, Desdemona’s father. He pleaded to the court and informed them to put his life on the line with his words. This similarity in the expressions shows how Othello has not changed in this instance. He has pleaded to the court of devils to jeopardize his life due to his wrongdoings. This goes on to show how new words will change Othello’s perspective of Desdemona from anger to innocence as a result of his reaction. He may appear unchanged on the outside in his actions, but inside, Othello's personality is restored. Therefore, Othello is eventually psychologically changed by the power of words, whether it is for the benefit or of the doubt.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
    • In conclusion, William Shakespeare’s Othello demonstrates the power of words and how it’s positive or negative intentions can impact the behavioral properties of another.

Thursday, September 24, 2015

REDO Attai Othello Act 2 Summary Response (3)

Summary Response Outline


Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
    • Othello by William Shakespeare delves into manipulation and how its properties can be used against a victim.
  • Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas
    • As conflicts rise in the play, Iago, the primary antagonist, applies manipulation through Cassio and Roderigo.
    • Throughout the story, Iago persuades both men to complete tasks that prove to have outcomes that help execute the initial steps in his revenge scheme against Othello.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
    • Clearly, when manipulation is present such as in Shakespeare’s play, Othello, its presence can be used to change the life of another.


Response:
  • Topic sentence:
    • Othello by William Shakespeare correctly portrays manipulation because it can lead to a negative result for the victim or victims.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
      • Iago is the primary antagonist in the play. He is an ancient of Othello, Iago’s master who is also a widely acclaimed commander. After Othello selects Michael Cassio, a young and inexperienced soldier, to succeed as his officer, Iago develops a hatred for both Othello and Cassio. In his scheme to gain revenge over both men, Iago plans to intoxicate Cassio in Cyprus before his nightly guarding shift commences.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (Shakespeare 1.2.13-17).
      • Iago expands on this plan as he depicts, “If I can fasten but one cup upon him with that which he hath drunk tonight already, He’ll be full of quarrel and offense as my mistress’ dog...Now, ‘mongst this flock of drunkards am I to put our Cassio in some action that may offend the isle. But here they come. If consequence do but approve my dream, my boat sails freely both with wind and stream” (Shakespeare 2.3. 85).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • Iago, who is aware of Cassio’s sensitivity to alcohol, plans to convince him to drink a glass of wine before his shift. This will not only enable Iago to manipulate him, but also give Othello an additional reason to ridicule Cassio. Cassio, being very reactant to the wine, will become mentally weak upon drinking. Iago then can use Cassio’s vulnerable nature to instigate a quarrel in which he will offend the isle of Cyprus. As a result of this immoral behavior, Othello will see the need to penalize Cassio, and will thus be adventitiously beneficial for Iago by advancing his revenge plan to the next phase.
  • Counterclaim 1:
    • Set-up
      • However, Iago occasionally incorrectly portrays manipulation. One instance is when he defends Cassio in front of Othello after Cassio engages in a fight.
      • While Cassio was drunk, Roderigo initiated a cataclysm. Othello walks in on the scene and Cassio is caught in the middle of the act. Ashamed and obfuscated, he asks Iago to recall and explain the event. Instead of delivering the story in a manner that describes Cassio as the scapegoat, Iago defends Cassio’s honor.
    • Evidence:
      • Iago explains to Othello, “I’d rather have this tongue cut from my mouth than it should do offense to Michael Cassio. Yet I persuade myself, to speak the truth shall nothing wrong him” (Shakespeare 2.3. 236-239).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • Iago supports Cassio to prove his loyalty to him, claiming he would rather be hurt than take away his honor. He speaks only to please Othello and extenuate the situation he walked into. Iago uses a more objective approach to explaining the situation and thus eliminates his manipulative tactics around Othello. Therefore, because Iago spoke to Othello directly about the situation and made no effort to manipulate Othello, manipulation is incorrectly portrayed.
  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
    • At first glance, one could argue based upon certain portions of the play that Iago is faithful to Cassio and that he wants Cassio to keep his position as lieutenant.
    • One can not deny that Iago defends Cassio in a public matter in front of his commander as well as explains the quarrel in such a way that would not harm Cassio. At multiple points in the story, such as the clash highlighting Cassio, Iago is withdrawn and simply observes the events. His actions do not directly start the physical conflicts.
    • However, it is more complicated than that. Iago deliberately manipulated Cassio and then acted as if he had done nothing wrong. This was to create his desired result, which is the swift removal of Cassio’s title. As a result, Othello and Cassio thought that he was trustworthy when he was really a twisted liar. Iago manipulated Cassio so that he would feel tense from his offered dosage of alcohol. The wine can be thought of as Iago. Iago’s negative influence and manipulative tactics are encompassed in the wine, and once Cassio ingests the wine, he ingests all of Iago’s negative power. He becomes Iago’s fool, and is henceforth under Iago’s control. Although Cassio’s actions are not directly controlled by Iago, his behavior in front of Othello is directly linked back to Iago himself. Therefore, Iago’s actions and words expressed in front of Cassio and Othello are all different representations of his manipulative characteristics.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
    • In conclusion, William Shakespeare’s Othello demonstrates the power of manipulation and how it can create a disadvantageous outcome for the targeted subjects.


Thursday, September 17, 2015

Attai/Jordan Act 2 Summary Response (3)

Summary Response Outline

Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
    • Othello by William Shakespeare delves into the power of manipulation and how its properties can be used against a victim.
  • Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas
    • As conflicts rise in the play, Iago, the primary antagonist, applies manipulative tactics through Cassio and Roderigo.
    • Throughout the story, Iago persuades both men to complete tasks that prove to have outcomes that help execute the initial steps in his revenge scheme against Othello.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
    • Clearly, when manipulation is present such as in Shakespeare’s play, Othello, its power, as discovered by readers, can be used to change the life of another.

Response:
  • Topic sentence:
    • Othello by William Shakespeare correctly portrays manipulation because it can lead to a negative result for the victim or victims.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
      • Iago is the primary antagonist in the play. He is an ancient of Othello, Iago’s master who is also a widely acclaimed commander. After Othello selects Michael Cassio, a young and inexperienced soldier, to succeed as his officer, Iago develops a hatred for both Othello and Cassio. In his scheme to gain revenge over both men, Iago plans to intoxicate Cassio in Cyprus before his nightly guarding shift commences.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (Shakespeare 1.2.13-17).
      • Iago expands on this plan as he depicts, “If I can fasten but one cup upon him with that which he hath drunk tonight already, He’ll be full of quarrel and offense as my mistress’ dog...Now, ‘mongst this flock of drunkards am I to put our Cassio in some action that may offend the isle. But here they come. If consequence do but approve my dream, my boat sails freely both with wind and stream” (Shakespeare 2.3. 85).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • Iago, who is aware of Cassio’s sensitivity to alcohol, plans to convince him to drink a glass of wine before his shift. This will not only enable Iago to manipulate him, but also give Othello an additional reason to ridicule Cassio. Cassio, being very reactant to the wine, will become mentally weak upon drinking. Iago then can use Cassio’s vulnerable nature to instigate a quarrel in which he will offend the isle of Cyprus. As a result of this immoral behavior, Othello will see the need to penalize Cassio, and will thus be adventitiously beneficial for Iago by advancing his revenge plan to the next phase.
  • Counterclaim 1:
    • Set-up
      • However, Iago occasionally incorrectly portrays manipulation. One instance is when he defends Cassio in front of Othello after Cassio engages in a fight.
      • While Cassio was drunk, Roderigo initiated a cataclysm. Othello walks in on the scene and Cassio is caught in the middle of the act. Ashamed and obfuscated, he asks Iago to recall and explain the event. Instead of delivering the story in a manner that describes Cassio as the scapegoat, Iago defends Cassio’s honor.
    • Evidence:
      • Iago explains to Othello, “I’d rather have this tongue cut from my mouth than it should do offense to Michael Cassio. Yet I persuade myself, to speak the truth shall nothing wrong him” (Shakespeare 2.3 236-239).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain quote, connect to claim
      • Iago supports Cassio to prove his loyalty to him, claiming he would rather be hurt than take away his honor. He speaks only to please Othello and extenuate the situation he walked into. Iago uses a more objective approach to explaining the situation and thus eliminates his manipulative tactics around Othello. Therefore, because Iago spoke to Othello directly about the situation and made no effort to manipulate Othello, manipulation is incorrectly portrayed.
  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
    • At first glance, one could argue based upon certain portions of the play that Iago is faithful to Cassio and that he wants Cassio to keep his position as lieutenant.
    • We can not deny that Iago defends Cassio in a public matter in front of his commander as well as explains the quarrel in such a way that would not harm Cassio. At multiple points in the story, such as the clash highlighting Cassio, Iago is withdrawn and simply observes the events. His actions do not directly start the physical conflicts.
    • However, it is more complicated than that. Iago deliberately manipulated Cassio and then acted as if he had done nothing wrong. This was to create his desired result, which is the swift removal of Cassio’s title. As a result, Othello and Cassio thought that he was trustworthy when he was really a twisted liar. Iago manipulated Cassio so that he would feel tense from his offered dosage of alcohol. The wine can be thought of as Iago. Iago’s negative influence and manipulative tactics are encompassed in the wine, and once Cassio ingests the wine, he ingests all of Iago’s negative power. He becomes Iago’s fool, and is henceforth under Iago’s control. Although Cassio’s actions are not directly controlled by Iago, his behavior in front of Othello is directly linked back to Iago himself. Therefore, Iago’s actions and words expressed in front of Cassio and Othello are all different representations of his manipulative characteristics.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
    • In conclusion, William Shakespeare’s Othello demonstrates the power of manipulation and how it can create a disadvantageous outcome for the targeted subjects.

REDO Attai Act 1 Summary Response (2)

Summary Response Outline


Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
    • Othello by William Shakespeare explores the progression of revenge through the conflicting actions displayed by the characters.
  • Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas (example and explanation/elaboration of example)
    • The maelstrom of emotions expressed by main characters Iago, Roderigo, and Othello set the tone for the story’s conflicts.
    • Othello, a renown black lieutenant in Venice, made decisions that instigated conflict with Iago, a loyal ancient of Othello who desires a higher military rank, and Roderigo, a man who is desperate to regain the love of Othello’s wife, Desdemona
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
    • In his play, Othello, Shakespeare illustrates how these characters’ colliding actions lead to revenge throughout the story.
Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, agree/disagree (correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays) because ___________ .
    • Othello, by William Shakespeare, correctly portrays how one will change their identity to gain revenge, because the subtlety and unexpectedness of revenge can unexpectedly lead to the demise of another.
  • Claim 1:
    • Set-up
      • Iago is one of the main antagonists and characters in the play. He possesses a great deal of military knowledge and skill, but is underutilized as an ancient, or servant, to the praised Othello. After a position as an officer alongside Othello was vacant, Iago hoped that he would be selected as a result of his loyalty and skill by Othello. Unfortunately, Othello gave the position to a man named Cassio, which Iago believed to be inexperienced and unqualified for the officer role. In order to gain revenge on Othello for his “misjudgment”, Iago places a “mask” over himself.
    • Evidence: Lead-in “ quotation” (       )
      • Iago discloses this information about his plan as he explains, “He holds me well. The better shall my purpose work on him...The Moor is of a free and open nature that thinks men honest that but seem to be so, and will as tenderly be led by th’ nose as asses are ” (Shakespeare 1.3 55).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim
      • Because Iago has proven himself to be trustworthy and loyal to Othello, he formulates a plan to utilize a “new identity” to retaliate against the hated Moor Othello. He applies a shield of innocence over himself, completing the initial steps of his plot. He will use the good, trusting nature of Othello to hurt him in an undetected manner, which he plans will result in Othello’s downfall and lead to his succession of power.
  • Counterclaim 1: However,
    • Set-up
      • However, a change in identity to obtain revenge is not entirely portrayed correctly in the story. Iago does not conceal his true identity around Roderigo. Roderigo is a young, wealthy, and foolish man who has experienced a prolonged love for Desdemona, a Venetian woman now married to Othello. Angered by this recent development, Roderigo plans to gain revenge on Othello by winning back Desdemona’s heart while the couple is in Cyprus. This will be done with Iago’s aid.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
      • Iago helps develop Roderigo’s plan by explaining to him, “Put money in thy purse. Follow thou the wars; defeat thy favor with an usurped beard...It cannot be that Desdemona should (long) continue her love to the Moor--put money in thy purse--nor he his to her” (Shakespeare 1.3 51).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim
      • In order for Iago to execute his plan, he requires an alliance with Roderigo. Roderigo’s wealth makes funding accessible and beneficial for him. Iago requires Roderigo’s involvement to execute his plan, so he introduces the idea of saving money “in thy purse” to help bring Roderigo out of his depressed state. In this instance, Iago does not go incognito in front of Roderigo. Iago is honest to Roderigo about what he must do and what he must remember. He speaks to Roderigo directly with his sincerity and seriousness, for he is in dire need of his ally’s help as much as his ally requires his. Because Iago dismisses his mask and presents himself to Roderigo in this state of purity, the stated necessity to change one’s identity to obtain revenge is incorrectly portrayed.


  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
    • At first glance, the use of masking and altering one’s identity is not applied in the advancement of the play. Shortcomings within the antagonist, Iago, prevent him from maintaining a selected identity as he proceeds in executing retaliation.
    • This position seems reasonable, for Iago depicts weakness in Roderigo’s presence at times. Roderigo, being as sensitive and insecure as he is, complicates Iago’s plan. Iago is the reason why Roderigo has presented such determination to win back Desdemona. Alone, Iago must place a mask over himself to execute his plan, but Roderigo’s last minute crises disrupt that transition, requiring Iago to dismiss his identity and rebuild Roderigo’s confidence. His caring, supportive nature is needed to keep Roderigo strong, so he must therefore retain his original identity and reestablish faith in Roderigo. Both of their plans rely on each other.
    • However, Iago holds back certain information regarding his true intentions for Roderigo. Although it may appear that Iago is honest and true to Roderigo, he applies a mask in front of his dear ally when he deceitfully confronts him. Iago is truthful when he convinces Roderigo to engage in certain acts, but subtly implies alternative results. From what is heard, Iago is bona fide in his words to other characters, but additional information and analytical processes show how Iago’s “good nature” is cut off by a shield that suggests otherwise. His revenge plot is reinforced by the positive reputation he has created, which allows him to manipulate others and lead them to their downfall through their trust in his new and old identities.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
Clearly, through Iago’s continuous presentations of a false identity in William Shakespeare’s Othello, readers can explore the strategic, hidden masks that one will apply to gain revenge over another.